식욕 ≫ 맛의 원리 ≫ 맛의 방정식
맛의 방정식 : Food pleasure equation
How Food pleasure work 맛의 원리 : 맛은 종합과학이다
Food pleasure 역할 : 보상시스템
- Like vs Want <->dislike
- 식욕 : 식욕 기작
- 중독 : 비만은 보상 중독이다
Rhythm of sensation
- 향, 후각 : 냄새대로 맛이 난다. 맛과 향의 상호작용
- 시각 : 색도 식욕을 좌우한다
- 시각 : 보는 대로 맛이 난다
- 청각 : 들리는 대로 맛이 난다
- 촉각 : 물성이 사라지면 맛도 사라진다
적당한 한 입 크기, 크기가 맛이다
- 온도 : 매운맛(온도감각), 통증도 맛이다
리듬 : 진짜 맛은 리듬에서 온다
- 순서도 맛이다
- 술잔에 따라서도 맛이 달라진다
- 맛은 영양 : 칼로리에 비례한다
- 내장감각 : 소화 잘되는 든든한 음식
- macro nutrient
싫지 않아야 맛있다
- 쓰면 뱉어라
- 역겨움은 학습에 의한 것
감각 연합 : 공감각
- 맛의 상호작용
- 후각과 인지구조
심상 : 감각은 맛의 시작일 뿐이고 실제 맛은 마음에서 온다
- 기분, 이미지, 신뢰도에 따라 달라진다
- 가격: 기대에 따라 달라진다
- 학습 : 이해하는 만큼 맛이 난다
- 기억 : 맛의 절반은 추억이다
- 상표 : 브랜드도 맛이다
- 조화 : 서로 조화를 이룰 때 : Flavor pairing
- Mind set : 뇌의 풍경에 따라
음악은 귀로 듣는 치즈케이크이다 - 진화심리학자 스티븐 핑커
맛은 입과 코로 듣는 음악이다 - 최낙언
Why Humans Like Junk Food
Major Food Perception Theories
1. Food Pleasure Equation (Hyde/Witherly) : Taste Hedonics, Salivation Response
2. Dynamic Contrast (Hyde/Witherly)
- Ping-Pong Pleasure Contrast (Hyde)
- Tostada Effect (Witherly), - Meatloaf Effect (Witherly)
3. Sensory Specific Satiety (Rolls) or “Variety Effect”
4. Supernormal Stimulus (E. O. Wilson)
5. Evoked Qualities
6. Flavor-Flavor Learning (Pliner)
7. Mere Exposure Effect (Pliner)
8. Taste-Aversion Learning (Bernstein/Rozin)
9. P. Rozin’s Principles of Food Likes and Dislikes (Disgust Theory)
10. Energy Density Theory (Drewnowski)
11. Vanishing Caloric Density (Hyde)
12. Post-Ingestional Conditioning (Booth, Capaldi)
13. Human “Cookivore” Theory (Wrangham)
14. Aroma and Essential-Nutrient Encoding (Goff and Klee)
15. “Liking” Versus “Wanting” Theory
16. The Stomach: the Second “Taste” System
- Taste Hedonics (salt, sugar, umami)
Foods must contain salt, sugar, MSG, and flavor-active compounds. Preferably all of the above at the physiologically correct amounts: salt at 1.0–1.5 percent, MSG at 0.15 percent, and 5’-nucleotides at 0.02 percent. In sugar systems, salt will always improve the overall taste hedonics; 0.25 percent salt is usually sufficient. Taste is a major driver of ingestion and pleasure in food, but it only accounts for less than 10 percent of all the sensation from the mouth to the brain. Food must also excite thermal (hot and cold), tactile, texture, fatty acid, and pain receptors. And there are many lesser known hedonic solutes yet to be discovered.
- Caloric density : CD 5.0
The gut-brain axis senses CD and makes it good. A CD of 4–5 is most preferred, often found in junk foods. (0 is the score for water and 9 is for pure fat.) Exceptions to this preference rule are those foods with big volumes that melt down quickly in the mouth (vanishing caloric density), such as popcorn
- Emulsion theory
Taste buds like emulsions, especially salt-fat or sugar-fat combinations. Many of our tastiest foods are in liquid or solid phase emulsions, whether they are butter, chocolate, salad dressings, ice cream, hollandaise sauce, mayonnaise, or crème. The making of an emulsion concentrates the hedonic taste solutes (salt, sugar, and MSG) into the water phase. We have discussed that butter is about 2.5 percent salt, but in the emulsified state, the actual salt content presented to the taste bud is 10 percent salt because all of the salt is in the 18 percent water phase. Ice cream is a frozen emulsified “foam” that concentrates the sugar (sucrose) in the water phase, enhancing the perception of sweetness.
Taste buds (and higher-order brain structures) like the taste of emulsions, whether they are salt-fat or sugar-fat combinations. The most agréable foods are true emulsions, whether they are butter, chocolate, salad dressings, ice cream, hollandaise sauce, mayonnaise, or crème. One major reason for this is the concentration effect of the hedonic taste solutes when made into an emulsion. For example, butter is about 2.5 percent salt by weight, but this level of salt is concentrated into the 15 percent water phase of the butter emulsion. In effect, the true salt concentration is 10 percent—a true hedonic salt rush.
French chefs are masters of emulsion creation, and the humble mashed potato is no exception. In the French Laundry Cookbook (p. 86), Thomas Keller describes the exacting technique of using a chinois (cone strainer) to create the perfect emulsification of potatoes, butter, and cream—or pomme purée. Chef Rowley Leigh, food columnist for the Financial Times USA, writes about the extraordinary (unctuous) mashed potatoes of French chef Joel Robuchon—finest ratte waxy potatoes emulsified with equal parts of unsalted Normandy butter.
- Rozin’s Fundamental Principle
Food psychologist Paul Rozin suggests that it is easier to dislike a food than to learn to like it. His observation is an important protective feature of the human omnivore, where we eat anything and can be poisoned by everything! Children, with lower body weights and less developed detoxification systems, become very picky and prone to eat the same foods over and over. Pregnant women, with a developing fetus, must be very selective with foods—especially novel ones, where even small amounts of ingested food can have lasting biological effects.
a. Disgust. This is a powerful motivation to reject food because the food tastes bad or is considered dangerous (a worm in an apple).18 A basic, core emotion, disgust involves the sense of taste, perhaps gastric nausea, and stereotypical facial (disgust) expressions—yuck! This factor is probably largely overlooked in food likes and dislikes—most of which are based on texture and animal products. My favorite examples of disgust from Rozin’s research include his attempt to get adults and kids to consume a cockroach-in-a-drink (after the cockroach has been removed) or his request for people to drink apple juice from a bed pan—now that’s disgusting.
b. Elisabeth Rozin’s Flavor Principle. An outstanding cook and food anthropologist, Ms. Rozin observes that cuisines have core techniques and flavors that define their character (sensory signature). Cuisine-curious cooks may want to check out her cookbooks (The Flavor Principle Cookbook, now known as Ethnic Cuisine; and Crossroads Cooking) and try preparing the flavor signatures of various cuisines. The function of Flavor Principles is to allow people to experience novel foods in their diet without inducing neophobia, or rejection. In Asian cuisine, for example, adding soy sauce to a new dish brings back the familiar and encourages food exploration. Here is an example of a flavoring principle: Indonesian cuisine is characterized by a combination of soy sauce, brown sugar, peanut, and chile. So by recreating this combination of flavors and ingredients you have formed the flavor “signature” of that cuisine. (For college students and serious foodies, reading anything from Paul and Elisabeth Rozin will advance your culinary and sensory knowledge.)
- Energy Density (ED) Theory
Adam Drewnowski (nutrition and sensory expert) has discovered in his research that high energy density food is associated with high food pleasure. In addition, energy-dense foods are tasty but not filling, whereas foods with low energy density are more filling but less tasty.19 Although humans never evolved in an energy-rich food environment (with the exception of nuts), but we crave the calorically dense foods when we see or sense them—we call this modern fast food. Even French cuisine techniques increase the tastiness and density of foods with butter and cream—visit the mashed potatoes recipe of Puree de Pomme de Terre in the Bouchon cookbook (page 250) to get the idea. His preparation technique is worth noting; it creates an emulsified potato mixture with rapid meltdown on the palate.
Energy density is a number from 0–9, and it is calculated by dividing calories (kcals) by the gram weight of a food. Foods’ ED ranges from water (0) to pure vegetable fat (9). Most vegetables are near 1, meats climb to 2–3, fast and junk foods hover around 4.0–5.0, and butter climbs to 7.2.
- Post-Ingestional Conditioning
Consuming the macronutrients (fat, protein, and carbohydrate) will quickly condition the human (and animals) to prefer the taste of that food. Sweet foods condition readily, sometimes after one pairing—sweet taste is a reliable and potent inducer of mu-opioid in the brain reward center. Foods high in fat calories also condition readily; studies reveal that feeding people yogurts with higher fat content will condition the food flavor faster and stronger. This is part of the problem with junk food—unusually rich in taste-active components like salt, fat, sugar, and umami, with high caloric density, they readily create potent food preferences. As food is digested, receptors in the stomach and intestines relay information on the food to the brain via direct contact with the vagus nerve, resulting in the release of many different peptide hormones. High-fat foods are particularly bienvenue; specific hormones relay fatty acid information (calories) to the brain and the fat cells. There are plenty of peptides in the brain that respond to the presence of fat. Such peptides include orexin, galanin, leptin, and insulin. In the appetite center, certain peptides are released that can stimulate the taste for fat (opioids, galanin) and carbohydrate (neuropeptide Y) and encourage hyperphagia (overeating).20
- Aroma and Essential Nutrient Encoding (Goff and Klee)
This novel theory states that human olfaction and the perception of essential nutrients in plants co-evolved in a mutually beneficial way.26 Many plants derive their volatiles from essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids. Their detection and perception may have helped guide human olfaction—fine-tuning the olfactory system to detect useful aromas. This fits in well with the cookivore theory. As we have seen, over hundreds and thousands of years of evolution our olfactory discrimination may have degenerated, but higher-order olfactory pathways were fine-tuned to pay attention to survival aromas in the environment: detecting food, foes, and sex. The authors suggest that volatiles that signal nutritional significance (Vitamin C, B-vitamins, and carotenoids) are epigenetically (pre-programmed) preferred—and this has very important food pleasure implications—especially in flavor manufacture and cuisine design.
맛은 감각적이요, 멋은 정서적이다.
맛은 적극적이요, 멋은 은근하다.
맛은 생리를 필요로 하고, 멋은 교양을 필요로 한다.
맛은 정확성에 있고, 멋은 파격에 있다.
맛은 그때뿐이고, 멋은 여운이 있다.
맛은 얕고, 멋은 깊다.
맛은 현실적이요, 멋은 이상적이다.
정욕생활은 맛이요, 플라토닉 사랑은 멋이다.
그러나 맛과 멋은 반대어는 아니다.
사실 그 어원은 같을지도 모른다.
맛있는 것의 반대는 맛없는 것이고, 멋있는 것의 반대는 멋없는 것이지 멋과 맛이 반대되는 것은 아니다.
맛과 멋은 리얼과 낭만과 같이 아름다운 조화를 이루는 것이다.
그러나 맛만 있으면 그만인 사람도 있고, 맛이 없더라도 멋만 있으면 사는 사람도 있다.
맛은 몸소 체험을 해야 하지만, 멋은 바라보기만 해도 된다.
- ‘맛과 멋(피천득)’